Critical Reload Exercise Recovery Shake

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A Supportive Collection of Journal & Book References
For Use In The Development of Critical Reload

*None of the references listed endorse ONS Performance or the use of its products.
  1. Biolo G, Fleming RYD, Wolfe RR. Physiological hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest 1996;95:811-19.
  2. Biolo G, Maggi SP, Williams BD, Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. Increased rates of muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Phys 1995;268:R514-E520.
  3. Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S, Wolfe RR. An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. Am J Phys 1997;273:E122-E129.
  4. Brouns, F Stroecken SJ, Thijssen BR, Rehrer NJ, ten Hoor F. Eating, drinking and cycling: a controlled Tour de France simulation study: Part II, Effect of diet manipulation. Int J Sports Med 1989;10:S41-S48.
    Colgan M. Optimum Sports Nutrition. New York, NY: Advanced Research Press, 1993.
  5. Dangin, et al., The digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retention. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, Feb 2001; 280: E340 - E348.
  6. Fallowfield JL, Williams C. CHO intake and recovery from prolonged exercise. Int. J Sport Nutr 1993;3:150-64.
  7. Friedman JE, Lemon PWR. Effect of chronic endurance exercise on retention of dietary protein. Int J Sports Med 1989;10:118-23.
  8. Gastelu, D, Hatfield, F. Performance Nutrition: the complete guide. International Sports Sciences Association, 2000.
  9. Goldberg AL, Chang TW. Regulation and significance of amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Fed Proc 1978;37:2301-7.
  10. Ivy JL, M. C. Lee, J. T. Brozinick Jr and M. J. Reed. Muscle glycogen storage after different amounts of carbohydrate ingestion. Appl Physiol 65: 2018-2023, 1988.
  11. Ivy JL, Goforth HW Jr, Damon BM, McCauley TR, Parsons EC, Price TB. Early post-exercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. J Appl Physiol. 2002 Oct;93(4):1337-44.
  12. Jenkins DJA, Cuff D, Wolever TMS, et al. Low glycemic index: lente CHOs and physiolgical effects of altered food frequency. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59(suppl):S706-S9.
  13. Kaye K. Brownlee, Alex W. Moore and Anthony C. Hackney. Relationship Between Circulating Cortisol & Testosterone: Influence of Physical Exercise. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2005) 4, 76-83.
  14. René Koopman, et al., Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in in male subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288: E645-E653, 2005.
  15. Krempf M, Hoerr RA, Pelletier VA, Marks LM, Gleason R, Young VR. An isotopic study of the effect of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolic fate of leucine and phenylalnine. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:161-9.
  16. Lemon PWR, Mullin JP. The effect of initial muscle glycogen levels on protein catabolism during exercise. J Appl Physiol 1980;48:624-9.
  17. MacLean DA, Spriet LL, Hultman E, Grahm TE. Plasma and muscle amino acid ammonia responses during prolonged exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 1991;70:2095-103.
  18. Meridith CN, Zackin MJ, Frontera WR, Evans WJ. Dietary protein requirements and body protein metabolism in endurance-trained men. J Appl Physiol 1989;66:2850-6.
  19. Miller et al., Independent and combined effects of amino acids and glucose after resistance exercise. Med & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35:449-455, 2003.
  20. Phillips SM, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD. Gender difference in leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol 1993;75:2134-41.
  21. Todd KS, Butterfield GE, Calloway DH. Nitrogen balance in men with adequate and deficient energy intake at three levels of work. J Nutr 1984;114:2107-18.
  22. Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, Atkinson SA Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass. J Appl Physiol 1990;68:302-8.
  23. Tipton, K., Rasmussen B., Miller S., Wolfe S., Owens-Stovall S., Petrini B., Wolfe R. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response to resistance exercise. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2001. 281 (2):E197-206
  24. Kevin D. Tipton et al., Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281: E197-E206, 2001
  25. Welle S, Matthews DE, Campbell RG, Nair KS. Stimulation of Protein turnover by carbohydrate overfeeding in men. Am J Physiol 1989;E413-E417.
  26. Williams et, al., Effects of recovery drinks after prolonged glycogen restoration and endurance performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning, 17:12-19, 2003.
  27. Wolfe RR, Wolfe MH, Nadel ER, Shaw JFH. Isotopic determination of amino acid-urea interactions in exercise humans. Am J Physiol 1984;56:221
  28. Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL. CHO-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J Appl Physiol 1992;72:1854-9.

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